Kathmandu Valley

The Kathmandu valley is the capital city of Nepal with an area of 167 ha. It has 3 major cities as Kathmandu, Patan, and Bhaktapur. There are 7 UNESCO world heritage cultural sites. The altitude of the Kathmandu valley is 1350m above sea level and it is surrounded by some big hills. Before the 15th century, it was one kingdom and its capital was Bhaktapur and divided into 3 kingdoms as Kathmandu, Patan and Bhaktapur. There were three kings ruling until the 18th century and then become the capital city of whole Nepal after the king Prithvi Narayan Shaha united Nepal. The valley itself was known as Nepal when the other parts outside Kathmandu valley had several different kings with their small states.

The Kathmandu valley is a developed and most populated city in Nepal. Most of the higher governmental headquarters are located in this valley. It is one of the tourist hubs in Nepal with rich unique art, architecture, culture, and street festivals.

Some historic monuments were badly hit by the earthquake on 25th April 2015 and a couple of hundred people were killed. Kathmandu is not the original name so it was known as Nepal Mandala (Land of Nepa People) but later in the 12th century, made Kashtha Mandap (Wooden building) which was made out of the wood of one tree then named Kathmandu from this building which is in Kathmandu Durbar Square.

The Kathmandu valley may have been inhabited from an early age and humans started to make settlements coming out of the jungle life. Historically, Kathmandu valley was full of water and when the water cleared out, Patan got the first inhabitants. There were several different dynasties were ruling in Kathmandu valley as below:

Gopal dynasty (Cow feeders) ruled for 521 years by 8 kings

According to the Hindu Myth, God Shree Krishna had come with his friends when the Kathmandu valley was full of water and cleared the water then made the king to Bhuktaman and he went.

  • Bhumi Gupta (Bhuktaman)
  • Jaya Gupta
  • Dharma Gupta
  • Harsh Gupta
  • Bhim Gupta
  • Madi Gupta
  • Bishnu Gupta
  • Jeet Gupta

Mahispal dynasty (Buffalo feeders)

Mahispal were from the same Gopal dynasty and divided into cow feeders and buffalo feeders actually they were from the same family.

Kirat Dynasty

Kirat had arrived in the valley at an early age in the 7th or 8th century they were Mongolian looking and used sheep farming. Kirat ruled for about 1225 years by 29 different kings as below:

  • Yellung Hang or Yalambar
  • Pari Hang
  • Skandhar Hang
  • Balamba Hang
  • Hriti Hang
  • Humati Hang
  • Jitedasti Hang
  • Galinja Hang
  • Oysgja Hang
  • Suyarma Hang
  • Papa Hang
  • Bunka Hang
  • Swawnanda Hang
  • Sthunko Hang
  • Jinghri Hang
  • Nane Hang
  • Luka Hang
  • Thor Hang
  • Thoko Hang
  • Verma Hang
  • Guja Hang
  • Pushkar Hang
  • Keshu Hang
  • Suja Hang
  • Sansa Hang
  • Gunam Hang
  • Khimbu Hang
  • Paruka Hang

Lichchavi Dynasty

Lichchavi were from the Indian states and ruled in Nepal only by 5 kings. There was no written language in Nepal before the Lichchavi ruled. There was spoken language only. King Manadeva put a stone pillar in Changunarayan with writings about his and his father’s work for the country then the writings started. The stone architecture was developed during this period. The kings of the Lichchavi were:

  • Dharmadeva
  • Manadeva
  • Amshuvarma (was in the Lichchavi period but he was not Lichchavi)
  • Manadeva II
  • Amshuvarma (again)
  • Jayadeva II

Malla Dynasty

The Malla were ruling Nepal from the 12th to the 18th century by the time only Kathmandu valley was Nepal. There were wooden carvings and most of the art and architecture were developed during the Malla period. The Malla was also from the Indian states when there was a problem between the Muslim and Hindus, Malla was Hindu and escape from their origin and settled in Nepal. These Malla kings ruled in whole Kathmandu valley ruling from Bhaktapur:

  • Ari Malla (1201 – 1216)
  • Abhaya Malla (1216 - 1235)
  • Ranasura (1216)
  • Jayadeva Malla (1235 - 1258)
  • Jaya Bhima Deva Malla (1258 - 1271)
  • Jayashimha Malla (1271 - 1274)
  • Ananta Malla (1274 - 1310)
  • Jayananda Deva Malla (1310 - 1320)
  • Jayari Malla (1320 - 1344)
  • Jayarudra Malla (1320 - 1326)
  • Jayaraja Deva Malla (1347 - 1361)
  • Jayaarjuna Malla (1361 - 1382)
  • Jayasthiti Malla (1382 - 1395)
  • Jayajyotir Malla (1395 - 1428)
  • Jayakriti Malla (1395 - 1403)
  • Jayadharma Malla (1395 - 1408)
  • Jayaksha Malla (1428 – 1482)

After these King ruled from Bhaktapur when the whole valley was one country, divided into 3 countries as Patan, Kathmandu, and Bhaktapur and started ruled individually by different kings until Nepal was united by the king Prithvi Narayan Shaha.

Kathmandu

Kathmandu day tour
Kathmandu durbar square

The real name of Kathmandu city was Kantipur which later changed to Kathmandu. After the period of Yaksha Malla some kings ruled this city which is listed below:

  • Ratna Malla (1482 - 1520)
  • Surya Malla (1520 - 1530)
  • Amara Malla (1530 - 1538)
  • Narendra Malla (1538 - 1560)
  • Mahendra Malla (1560–1574)
  • Sadashiva Malla (1574–1583)
  • Shivasimha Malla (1583–1620)
  • Laxminarasimha Malla (1620 - 1641)
  • Pratap Malla (1641–1674)
  • Chakrabartendra Malla (1669)
  • Mahipatendra Malla (1670)
  • Jayanripendra Malla (1674–1680)
  • Parthivendra Malla (1680–1687)
  • Bhupalendra Malla (1687–1700)
  • Bhaskar Malla (1700–1714)
  • Mahendrasimha Malla (1714–1722)
  • Jagjaya Malla (1722–1736)
  • Jayaprakash Malla (1736–1746)
  • Jyotiprakash Malla (1746–1750)
  • Jayaprakash Malla (1750–1768)

Lalitpur (Patan)

Patan Durbar Square
Patan Durbar Square

Lalitpur city is popular as Patan by the tourist because of the Patan Durbar Square. Latipur was named by the fine arts so Lalitpur means the city of fine arts and Patan means the flat land. This city has no regular kings. Sometimes it would be under Kathmandu and sometimes would be under Bhaktapur. Here is the list of who ruled Lalitpur:

  • Purandr Simha (1580 - 1600)
  • Harihar Shimha (1600 - 1609)
  • Shiva Simha [King of Kantipur] (1609 - 1620)
  • Siddhi Nara Shimha Malla (1620 - 1661)
  • Shree Niwasa Malla (1661 - 1685)
  • Yoga Narendra Malla (1685–1705)
  • Loka Prakash Malla (1705–1706)
  • Purandara Malla (1706–1709)
  • Bira Nara Shimha Malla (1709)
  • Bira Mahindra Malla (1709–1715)
  • Riddhi Malla (1715–1717)
  • Mahindra Malla (1717–1722)
  • Yoga Prakash Malla (1722–1729)
  • Bishnu Malla (1729–1745_
  • Rajya Prakash Malla (1745–1758)
  • Bishwajit Malla (1758–1760)
  • Jaya Prakash Malla (King of Kantipur) (1760–1761), (1763–1764)
  • Ranajit Malla [King of Bhaktapur] (1762–1763)
  • Dalamardan Shaha [Brother of Prithvi Narayan Shaha] (1764–1765)
  • Tej Nara Simha Malla 1765–1768

Bhaktapur

55 Windows Palace Bhaktapur
55 Windows Palace Bhaktapur

Bhaktapur city is the oldest city of Kathmandu valley and it is rich in wooden carvings. Bhaktapur is known as the city of devotees and the real name of this city is Bhadgaun. Here is the list of the kings who ruled in Bhaktapur:

  • Raya Malla (1482 - 1519)
  • Prana Malla (1519 - 1547)
  • Bishwa Malla (1547 - 1560)
  • Trailokya Malla (1560–1613)
  • Jagajyoti Malla (1613–1637)
  • Naresh Malla (1637–1644)
  • Jagat Prakash Malla (1644–1673)
  • Jitamitra Malla (1673–1696)
  • Bhupatindra Malla (1696–1722)
  • Ranajit Malla (1722–1769)

Then the Kathmandu valley was united by the Shaha dynasty (King Prithvi Narayan Shaha) then moved his palace from Gorkha to Kathmandu and started ruling from here as the capital city of Nepal. Several Shaha kings ruled Nepal from 2008 Nepal has no more king. Here is the list of the Shaha kings who ruled from 1768-to 2008.

  • Prithvi Narayan Shaha (1768 - 1775)
  • Pratap Singh Shaha (1775 - 1777)
  • Rana Bahadur Shaha (1777 - 1799)
  • Girbana Yuddha Bikram Shaha (1799 - 1816)
  • Rajendra Bikram Shaha (1816 - 1847)
  • Surendra Bikram Shaha (1847 - 1881)
  • Prithvi Bira Bikram Shaha (1881 - 1911)
  • Tribhuwan Bira Bikram Shaha (1911 - 1950)
  •  Gyanendra Bira Bikram Shaha (1950 - 1951)
  • Tribhuwan Bira Bikram Shaha (1951 - 1955)
  • Mahendra Bira Bikram Shaha (1955 - 1972)
  • Birendra Bira Bikram Shaha (1972 -  2001)
  • Dipendra Bira Bikram Shaha (1st June 2001 - 4th June 2001)
  • Gyanendra Bira Bikram Shaha (2001 -  2008)

If you are interested to visit these cities and the heritage sites tour these places to know more about history, culture, religion, ethnicity, art, and architecture please contact us.

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